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Horses of the Budyonnovsk breed were bred in the USSR for the cavalry units of the Soviet army. The mechanization of military units led to the abolition of the cavalry as a kind of troops. Budennovists remained in demand for equestrian competitions. The horses harmoniously combine the beauty of the exterior, power and speed of movement. Additions to these qualities are endurance and unpretentious maintenance.
The initiator of the breeding of the horse breed for the cavalry was S.M.Budyonny. After the end of the civil war, stud farms in the Kuban received all-round support to create a livestock of horses for pedigree breeding.
The directors of the stud farms were appointed commanders of cavalry units, who had a good idea of the requirements for horses for military needs. 70 stallions of the English riding breed were delivered to 150 mares of the Don breed. A special role in the formation of the signs of the Budyonnovsk breed was played by the stallions Sympatyaga, Kokas, Inferno, and also Switch.
Studs continue to breed the Budennovites:
- named after S. Budyonny;
- named after the First Cavalry Army;
- "Virgin land";
- in Kalmykia;
- Stavropol Territory;
Horses, with general breed qualities, have factory features:
- horses from the First Cavalry are recognized by the bay color, large head, angularity;
- stud farm them. Budyonny is recognized by his muscular, broad-bodied, reddish-gold horses;
- Yulov horses are more graceful, golden color.
The cultural-herd breeding method in combination with physical activity made it possible to quickly form breeding characteristics. The breed was officially recognized in 1948. From the Donchaks, the Budennovites adopted the color, unpretentiousness and endurance. English horses conveyed the exterior and agility.
In the 60s, the demand for riding, draft horses for army needs fell sharply due to the expansion of the car park, the abolition of cavalry as a kind of troops. The Budyonnovskaya horse has survived and is in demand as a sports horse, for organizing tourism, hunting, horseback riding, and hippotherapy.
Description of the Budyonnovskaya breed
The Budennovskaya breed, despite the difficulties of financing in the 90s, has retained its breeding characteristics. This is a large-boned, tall horse, bay or red color with a golden undercoat. Frisky, hardy, well-coordinated animal.
Budennovsk horses were bred for riding, which determined their exterior. The height of stallions can reach 178 centimeters, mares - 170 centimeters. The average size of the breed is 165 centimeters. The muscular body has a straight back, a wide and deep chest, a powerful croup, and a well-developed withers. The smoothly curved neck passes into the long nape. The head is dry, broad-forehead, with a straight bridge of the nose, small, expressive eyes.
Legs are slender, with well-developed muscles, strong joints and tendons. Color - shades of red with a golden tint.
Budennovsky horses often have a wayward character. By nature, they are impressionable and affectionate to the owner, painfully endure the change of owner. In such cases, they can show stubbornness, disobedience, kick. Such individuals are isolated from the rest of the horses so that they do not affect the handling of the herd.
In the Budyonnovskaya breed, there are 3 intra-breed types:
The characteristic type combines the main characteristics of the ancestors:
- working capacity.
In the eastern type, genes from the Donchaks prevail. These are smaller horses, elegant color. The massive type is inferior to the two previous ones in exterior and agility, surpasses them in the size of the body. There are crosses between the eastern-massive and the eastern-characteristic.
Budyonnovsk mares are distinguished by high productivity, which is explained by excellent health and longevity. The peculiarity of the horse is that it gives birth to offspring only when kept in herd. Foals appear in late autumn. Three herds are formed from young stock: stallions, fillies and a group of the best. They are designed to produce offspring, to improve the breed.
Advantages and disadvantages
A horse bred for military purposes has virtues that are rarely found in other breeds. This is a brave, intelligent, patient animal. The horse becomes attached to the owner and completely trusts him, flawlessly performing the tasks assigned to him. As a result of selection, the horse is resistant to prolonged nervous and physical stress.
She has the ability to sprint, run for a long time, jumps well. Natural grace and beautiful exterior made her irresistible in dressage competitions. At the same time, the residents of Budyonny do not require special care in caring for and feeding. Natural immunity protects against colds. The disadvantages of the breed include the common rattle, stubbornness shown in relation to unfamiliar people.
The Budyonnovskaya breed is not as exacting to maintenance and care as the Arabs and Akhal-Teke horses. Originally intended for cavalry units, she was hardened on long pasture grazing and raised in herds. When keeping a horse individually, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of breeding.
Budennovsk horses do not tolerate stuffiness and high air temperatures poorly. Painful bites of autumn flies, gadflies, horseflies make animals nervous. During the summer period, the stable must have good ventilation to create a comfortable living environment.
In the cold season, dampness and drafts in the room where the horses are kept should be excluded. The best temperature regime is from 7 to 10 degrees Celsius.
Horses are washed once a week. During training and after competitions, the procedure is carried out more often. The wool is pre-cleaned with rubber scrapers and hair brushes. The mane and tail are washed with shampoo and combed with a wooden comb. The horse must be pleased with the water procedure, otherwise it can hit the hoof.
Horse hooves are crocheted to remove stuck stones and dirt. Once a month, they clean off the dead bone tissue, rub in emollients.
Cleaning the barn
Sawdust, straw or peat are used as bedding. Complete replacement is carried out in spring and autumn. The rest of the time, add 5-10 centimeters to the bed.
Feeding and drinking
The diet of Budyonnovsk residents includes hay and fresh grass, corn and oats, vegetables and fruits. Horses love to be treated to a lump of sugar. During training, the proportion of forage is increased, vitamin and mineral supplements are introduced. Drinking water should be fresh, with a temperature of 15-17 degrees. The horses are watered before feeding. The daily rate of water is 70 liters per head.
The horse is examined daily for timely detection of cuts, cracks in the hooves, and tendon sprains. Once or twice a year, the horse is shown to the dentist to prevent tooth decay. The horses must be examined by a veterinarian annually. Vaccinations are given according to age and schedule.
The Budyonnovskaya horse breed should be reared in a herd or group of 8-10 horses. This feature allows you to identify the character and temperament of the horse. With the limited size of the pasture, horses with a quarrelsome, obstinate character interfere with the grazing of the rest of the herd or group. Such animals are removed from the herd. The requirement for the character of the herd mare:
- quick wits;
- speed reaction.
Foals and filly are grazed separately after weaning from their mother. The most valuable stallions form a cult group from which future sires and individuals will be selected to compete. Foals are kept in stalls in pairs, accustomed to a person, a halter, and given a nickname.
From the age of 2, horses are tested in races at the hippodrome, being taught to withstand heavy physical exertion.
Horses of the Budyonnovsk breed can be purchased at stud farms and from private individuals. Stud farms offer young animals aged from 1.5 to 2 years at a price of 100 thousand and 150 thousand rubles per head, respectively. Private owners put up horses for sale for 6-8 years. These are either trained stallions and geldings ready for equestrian performances, or mares for reproduction. The cost depends on the pedigree, the results of performances in competitions. The price varies within 1.5 million rubles.
Where is the breed used today?
The Budyonnovskaya breed belongs to the sporting species. The universal qualities of horses allow them to be used in all competitive disciplines:
- show jumping;
- horse racing;
Representatives of the breed are successfully competing for prizes in these equestrian sports. Famous foreign athletes such as N. Garson, L. Berbaum, Yu. Zyusman performed at them. Horses are used to treat children with cerebral palsy (hippotherapy), hunting, equestrian tourism, and amateur riding.