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Many gardeners want more plum trees on their property. This is not surprising - the fruits have medicinal properties and are very tasty. It is possible to grow additional seedlings if you know how to propagate a fruitful plum correctly, choose a successful growing method. It is equally important to know the timing of the preparation of green, lignified cuttings.
Plum breeding methods
Plum is grown vegetatively: by cuttings, root shoots, grafting.
Grafting is a method when grafts are grafted onto rootstocks to obtain a new variety. Buds and cuttings are taken as scions. Saplings quickly bear fruit.
The seed method is used to grow rootstocks. Sowing is carried out in early spring. Preparation begins in advance. Seeds are stratified up to 6 months. The hatched bones are planted in April. Young rootstocks grow over the season.
Experienced gardeners prefer to grow plums by cuttings. This breeding method is considered reliable. They have a high survival rate of plantings, retain varietal qualities.
Cuttings suitable for propagation are green and lignified. You can root twigs at home and greenhouse structures.
Propagation by green cuttings was used in industry when large volumes of seedlings were required. Varieties with a developed root system are ready for this method. The principle of cultivation is constant irrigation of the leaves in the greenhouse. By autumn, the top watering is canceled, and they move on to preparing for the winter - hardening.
Propagation by root shoots is a simple method that does not require lengthy preparation, as is the case with cuttings. The right approach will guarantee the next year's harvest.
Shoots are young plants that sit around the mother tree. They are united by the root system.
The specimens should be chosen further from the mother trunk. Closely growing shoots feed from the mother, therefore, the underground part of them is poorly developed, and the distant shoots feed autonomously.
The optimum length of the process is up to 50 centimeters.
Before starting work, examine the desired escape for integrity, signs of oppression. The optimal time for breeding is April, August.
How is rooting of cuttings
Lignified cuttings are planted in the substrate in this way:
- the third kidney is not visible on the surface, but does not deepen far;
- that part of the branch that goes into the ground is processed with a growth stimulant - "Kornevin", "Heteroauxin";
- cuttings are planted at an angle of 45 degrees;
- the landing is covered with a film.
Roots are formed at the cut and along the length of the stem. Over time, they die off from the top, remain at the end of the stem, they are called basal. It is from them that the formation of the root system takes place.
There is another unique method of rooting outdoors. A lignified stalk is launched into raw potatoes. The main thing is that 3 buds should be outside and 3 inside the tuber. The vegetable will give off moisture until the roots appear.
Green cuttings are planted in steps - 3, in rows - 5, depth - 3 centimeters. The top leaf is on the surface. The plantings are covered with a film to create a favorable microclimate.
It is important to maintain the temperature in the greenhouse up to 29 ° C. The soil must be moist.
Rooting will take place in the interval of 18-30 days. The film is removed during the day for optimal oxygen access. After about a month, the cuttings are fed with mineral fertilizers. In autumn, the seedlings are prepared for wintering and covered with dry leaves.
Rules for harvesting cuttings
Green cuttings are taken from young trees. There must be growth buds.
Lignified cuttings of annual shoots are best cooked in the fall, since annual shoots freeze slightly. Pruning is carried out from the south side of the trunk (they take root better). Tools - only sharp (secateurs, knife).
Before grafting, make a rejuvenating pruning of the mother tree. The mother tree must be healthy and fruitful. Age - from 3 to 10 years old.
You can not take thin branches with undeveloped buds, damaged, crooked shoots, tops. The annual growth is cut off on cuttings 40-50 centimeters long, the diameter is chosen 7 millimeters.
The planting material is stored at a temperature of 2-3 ° C.
Lignified cuttings are harvested in advance and stored in the basement or refrigerator. If stored properly, they can be kept for up to 3 years.
In autumn, when the tree has accumulated the most useful substances, it is at rest, the material is being cut.
The preparation of the cuttings can be done in the spring. The main thing here is to have time to make a workpiece before the buds swell.
The green samples are cut exactly the opposite. The tree must develop intensively. In the summer, in July, you can start preparing.
How to properly plant a shoot
Shoots are dug in from all sides. Here you need to correctly determine the main root leading to the parent tree. It is he who must be chopped off with a sharp shovel. Do not rush to bury the ground, treat the mother trunk with garden pitch. Treatment will prevent the loss of juice, get rid of infection.
The scion is dug out together with a clod of earth. If the planting is not carried out immediately, the shoots can stay in this position for a week. The main thing is to moisturize the root system.
The process of planting a young plant
The plum tree grows well on any soil, but does not tolerate stagnant water. Do not forget to determine the depth of the groundwater when choosing a location. The main condition for location is sunny space, without wind. The shade has a negative effect on the plum - it gives a lighter shade of leaves, small fruits.
The landing site is prepared in the fall, since the ground is frozen in spring, and the funnel should stand at least 2 weeks before planting. The depth of the pit is 0.5 meters. The diameter is chosen so that the root system is comfortably located, usually 0.7 meters. Reinforce the peg in the center. The land is used only fertile. Therefore, it is left around the seat. With a large number of young trees, it is worth maintaining a distance between the funnels of 3 meters.
A seedling from its site is dug out before planting, preferably with a clod of earth. This is another secret of fast rooting in a new place.
A purchased copy, purchased in the fall, is buried in the ground. Cover with spruce branches, add snow in winter.
As soon as the buds were swollen, planting time came:
- The seedling is placed on the north side of the peg. Gently spread the roots along the bottom.
- They fall asleep with fertile soil.
- The neck is left 5 centimeters above the soil level.
- The earth is tamped.
- 4 buckets of water are slowly poured under each seedling.
- Peat or humus is laid on top.
A layer of mulch will maintain moisture, get rid of weeds.
When can rooted plum cuttings be transplanted?
The time for planting cuttings in open ground is autumn or spring. There is only one regularity - the survival rate of trees is better in spring.
Spring starts at different times in different regions. The best guideline for planting is soil temperature. The earth should warm up to 8-12 ° C.
Home-grown cuttings should be hardened 2-3 weeks before planting. First, take out in the daytime to the terrace, balcony. Every day the time for "walks" is increased, up to disembarkation.
Cuttings grown in a greenhouse also require hardening. In the first decade of September, the film is slightly opened in the daytime. The duration of the walks is increasing every day. By the end of the week, open the ends of the greenhouse for the night.
After 2 weeks, the cover is removed completely. The starting point will be the first "walk".
In the spring, loose soil is prepared, where the seedlings will be planted. Throughout the season, plantings are looked after: watered, removed weeds, fed.
In the second spring, the young tree is transplanted to a permanent place.
Will the plum grown from the sprout bear fruit?
Plum from the shoot will bear fruit in the second or third year, if you correctly and competently approach the breeding method and provide proper care.