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The idea of creating a project for a cowshed for 50 cows can be successfully implemented at home. The main thing is to study the basic requirements, the procedure for the construction of the structure. In the built "house for cows" the animals should be comfortable, dry and warm. Then the result will certainly appear: regular milk yield, weight gain and an increase in livestock. And it is not so difficult to build a cowshed according to ready-made drawings, calculations.
An erected cattle farm must meet a number of requirements. Be sure to be guided by sanitary standards. The barn must not be brought closer than 15 meters to residential buildings, 20 to a well or water well.
Of the materials for construction, wood looks the most suitable for a barn. You can, of course, use adobe, masonry, light blocks (slag, concrete).
The design of the barn depends on the number of livestock that are planned to be kept in the pen. For 1-2 cows or an adult animal with a calf, wood is most suitable. This material is generally available for the barn, which can be purchased at any log warehouse, in a carpentry shop.
In some sources, reinforced concrete is often mentioned as the recommended material for the barn. For him there are arguments both for and against.
Reinforced concrete is relatively cheap and allows you to speed up the process of building a barn. In the USSR, this material was used everywhere.
But poor thermal insulation properties minimize all the positive aspects. Metal structures are in approximately the same position. They are lightweight, easy to install, and have a low price. At the same time, they are subject to corrosive wear and require insulation.
Even without any drawings at hand, you can estimate the approximate dimensions of the future barn. They are determined based on the following parameters (data are given in the table):
|The number of animals, their type||Minimum area, square meters|
|Adult cow with calf (separate content)||18|
Adult animal (no cub)
Cow with calf
This is how the dimensions of the barn are set according to the actual or expected composition of the animals.
In addition to this factor, it is important to consider that cows are demanding in terms of care and maintenance of animals. Failure to comply with a comfortable temperature for animals, cleanliness in the barn will lead to diseases, death of livestock. Be sure to consider the following criteria:
- air humidity;
Like humans, a cow is sensitive to a combination of living conditions. If you take into account many important details at the design stage, then you will not have to spend money on additional equipment, alteration of the barn. For example, you can foresee in advance drinkers, feeders, placement of these structures in the pen.
One of the options for the barn is shown in the video:
An excellent solution is the idea of waste-free production, when the waste product of cows is used to heat a farm, a barn, and generate electricity. Ordinary manure.
The video shows the solution, the design of a compact plant for the production of biogas coming from the barn:
Drawings and dimensions of a barn for 50 heads
To build a cowshed, you can use ready-made drawings or order a project to fit your needs.
The first option refers to the budget. The second will be adapted to specific needs, including keeping only adult cows, young or mixed.
Whichever method is chosen for construction, it requires a balanced approach, the choice of tools and the calculation of materials. It depends on this whether the barn will turn out to be really convenient, reliable, or it will turn out to be wasted funds, materials, time and effort.
What tools and materials will be needed
The choice of barn design affects labor costs and the complexity of construction. Assembly from foam blocks seems to be the most promising. It is a lightweight, warm, durable material. But building a foam concrete farm requires minimal skill as a bricklayer. Even for such a structure, a foundation, at least simplified, will definitely be needed.
The same applies to reinforced concrete. The best options for small private households are construction options from rolled metal or wood. With proper design, in the future, a barn for 50 heads can be easily converted into a larger one, for 80 or 100 animals.
As an example, consider a timber project as a universal one. Materials and tools will be needed:
- Boards, timber.
- Insulation (roll, slab).
- Trough for mortar, concrete.
- Shovels, hand drill.
- Hacksaw, circular electric saw.
- Building level.
- Plumb line.
- Electric drill.
- Nails, screws.
This is the minimum required set. Individual components, materials can be added or excluded from the list. If a reinforced concrete foundation is chosen, then reinforcement will also be needed.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
It is better to dot the "and" in advance, to calculate the proposed options in order to avoid the likely costly alterations.
Making a barn with your own hands
When the drawings are ready, materials are purchased, all possible nuances have been taken into account, including the choice of a place for the barn, you can proceed directly to the manufacturing process. The construction itself should be broken down into several stages:
- Excavation work (digging a foundation pit, laying a foundation, sewerage).
- Coating device.
- Decorating, wiring, ventilation, barn equipment.
Not a single stage can be canceled, or eliminated altogether, if this sequence is included in the farm project. Also, the stages cannot be interchanged, since they are interconnected, subject to the requirements of the technology of construction production.
Before laying the foundation, the type of structure is determined (or rather, this is already laid down in the project) - tape, pile, from torn stone. The depth of the laying is calculated depending on the region, how much the soil freezes in the winter season. A too deep foundation will increase labor costs. Not enough - will not ensure the stability of the structure.
Before the foundation device, a site breakdown, marking is required. Fine gravel (screenings) and sand are poured into the bottom of the pit. On weak, bulk, moistened soils, only a pile foundation is arranged.
The reinforced frame increases the strength of the structure, but requires the availability of rolled products (these are additional costs), skills in welding or wire knitting. Before pouring the foundation, reinforcing bars must be laid, fixed in order to avoid their displacement. The outlets left above the edge are needed to fasten the overlying structures (walls).
If the groundwater is close to the surface, and the site cannot be replaced, it will be necessary to carry out hydraulic engineering measures to get rid of excess moisture. This is a costly and complicated undertaking, but if it is not followed, the barn will begin to collapse. The floors will rot and the animals will get sick.
When constructing a concrete foundation, adhesion times are established. The artificial stone gains approximately 30% of its strength in 3 days. You cannot load it earlier, you cannot proceed to the construction of walls. Excavation work, concrete placement are carried out strictly in the warm season, at above-zero temperatures.
Do not forget about waterproofing: it will protect the foundation structures located in the ground from destruction. It can be coated (mastic) or glued.
Floor and gutter
The advance arrangement of the gutter will solve the problem with the collection of manure, waste disposal. The floors can be made of wood or rubber flooring. The use of cement, lightweight concrete floors is undesirable: they are cold and lead to diseases of animals.
When constructing a gutter, a slope is created, the possibility of cleaning manure and drains is provided. It is better if its walls are reinforced with stone tiles, special sections made of galvanized steel or plastic pipes. This will eliminate the need to deal with seepage of drains, destruction of floors.
It is permissible to use lattice structures for flooring: in this case, all waste falls into the sewer located below. But such floors are difficult to construct, and besides, they are not safe for cows. Do not forget about the bedding.
This is a special layer applied to the barn floor. Performs the functions of additional insulation, although it complicates the cleaning of the room. In European farms, filling from dried, crushed manure has proven itself well. A special machine will be needed to make it.
The approximate consumption of materials for backfill is indicated in the table:
The design of the walls provides for their construction of wood (boards, timber) with subsequent insulation, sheathing with a special heat-insulating material. If a frame scheme is chosen for the construction of a barn, then the space between the columns is filled with insulation (even pressed straw briquettes can be used).
The walls are connected to the foundation into a single rigid structure. The tree must be treated with special solutions to avoid damage by insects, rotting, and the development of fungi. In the upper part, the walls are connected with beams and roof structures so that the whole building turns out to be strong and stable.
Openings (window, door), as well as their location, are calculated in advance. Paints used to cover wood must not contain toxic materials or cause allergic reactions.
The roof of the barn should provide protection of animals from precipitation, bad weather, be strong, reliable and as inexpensive as possible. The budget option provides for the device of a covering from a profiled sheet. The same roof is chosen if a summer enclosure is arranged. For a capital barn, it is advisable to organize the insulation of the cover.
The roof can be pitched (with 1 or 2 slopes), flat. This design ensures the drainage of precipitation. The device of a drain, storm sewer is not included in the list of mandatory works, but significantly extends the life of the roof. Also, when constructing the coating, the outlets of the communications of the ventilation system are provided.
Windows and doors
Illumination is an important parameter when designing a barn. Provided by the presence of the proper number of windows. It would be nice to take into account the possibility of ventilation, create removable transoms or sections. Glasses are installed on a sealant or special tape to eliminate gaps. In winter, any gap, hole in the barn will lead to heat loss, diseases of animals due to hypothermia.
Doors are made independently or purchased. A gate for animals (usually 2-leaf) and a separate entrance for people are required. If the barn has more than one section, each section is equipped with a separate entrance. The design of the hinges must support the weight of the gates and doors, and the locks must ensure reliable closing of the barn.
Ventilation and communications
It is important to ensure air circulation in the barn. For this, there must be an inflow and an outflow. By design, ventilation of the barn can be either natural or forced. The required parameters are determined by calculation, in no case at random.
Barn communications include electrification, water supply, sewerage, additional equipment (for example, heating with a thermostat). Performed on the basis of a pre-selected scheme, project, structures, materials.
In barns, it is not uncommon for robotic cleaners to be used to replace humans. And an automatic drinker will eliminate the need to monitor the availability of clean water in animals.