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Many growers use Bordeaux mixture to protect the vines from disease and pests. Before using the Bordeaux mixture for grapes, you need to familiarize yourself with its detailed description and characteristics.
Bordeaux liquid: composition
Before using the liquid, it is necessary to study what components it is made of. To prepare it, you will need the following components:
- heated water;
- copper sulfate;
- slaked lime.
Vitriol is considered the main component of the composition, since it is he who contributes to the development of grape bushes. If the plant does not have enough of this substance, its immunity will weaken, which will lead to the development of dangerous pathologies.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any component against plant diseases, Bordeaux mixture has advantages and disadvantages. The pluses include the following:
- Trace elements from the composition of the solution quickly penetrate the leaves with bark. Moreover, they are not washed off the surface of the grapes, even in heavy rains.
- The tool is considered universal, since it can be used in autumn and spring. This allows you to process bushes before and after harvesting a ripe crop.
- The mixture effectively fights against a wide range of parasites and pathogenic pathogens.
The disadvantages of the tool include:
- Phytotoxicity. It manifests itself if you spray the bushes with liquid too often.
- Toxicity of copper. For humans, this component is considered dangerous and poisonous. Therefore, experienced growers are advised to spray in a protective suit.
- Accumulation in soil. Trace elements of the Bordeaux mixture accumulate in the ground. In the future, because of this, the leaves may turn yellow and fall off.
To get acquainted with how the solution affects the processed grapes, you will have to study how the mixture works. After it gets on the surface of the leaves or bark, the components from the composition of the liquid penetrate into the cells of pathogens and begin to destroy them.
If she got not only on the plant, but also on insects, then they will also die. Also, such a solution is used for prevention, since the treated bushes no longer attract pests.
When the effect occurs
Some believe that the therapeutic effect of using the mixture occurs immediately after using it, but this is not the case. The waiting time for a visible effect from the drug is 2-3 hours. The protective effect lasts much longer and is 1-2 weeks after spraying.
Bordeaux mixture is considered fungicidal and therefore toxic to humans. The person who works with the fungicide will have to wear special protective clothing, a respirator, rubber gloves and goggles. Only such protective equipment will be able to protect it from dangerous burns.
Due to toxicity, all containers in which the mixture was located will have to be disposed of. They cannot be reused for irrigation and even less for storing drinking water.
How to determine the quality of a drug
To determine the quality of the fungicide, pay attention to its color. A properly prepared liquid should be blue in color. Low-quality solutions are colorless and do not even have a faint blue tint. Grape growers do not advise using them, as they do not adhere well to the leaves and are quickly washed off.
Also, to check the quality, a nail is immersed in the container with the drug. If a faint plaque appears on its surface, then you will have to add a little milk of lime.
How to dilute the spray liquid
To properly prepare the solution, you need to understand the basic recommendations for diluting the liquid.
When preparing a 1% solution, you will have to add 100 grams of fungicide to a liter of water. Then add another 4 liters of water to the solution and pour it into a separate container.
To make a more concentrated 3% solution, you will have to mix lime with copper sulfate in an amount of 400 grams and fill them with five liters of water.
Instructions for use
It is recommended that you read the instructions for using the Bordeaux mixture so as not to accidentally harm the grapes.
All grape cuttings are treated with a 3% mixture for disease prevention. To do this, they are completely dipped in liquid from vitriol and lime for 20-25 seconds.
Disinfection of wounds
The product is often used to cleanse and disinfect wounds. To do this, it is enough to spray them 2-3 times with a weakly concentrated 1% mixture.
Timing and dosing
Everyone who is going to use the Bordeaux mixture must decide in advance on the timing of spraying and dosages.
Spraying on a sleeping vine
This method of processing is used in early spring, before the buds appear. The grapes are freed from shelter in the first half of March, after which the soil with the vine is sprayed with a fungicide.
In the spring
Spraying is done in the first month of spring, until the buds are fully awakened. In the spring, it is enough to spray the bushes once a month.
In the southern regions, the grapes are processed after the leaves fall, and in the northern ones - before the bushes are sheltered. In the fall, spraying is done no more than once.
Green leaf treatments
It is no secret that green leaves are sensitive to fungicidal solutions, and therefore grapes are sprayed with 1% liquid in the summer. The procedure is performed once a month.
Chemical Robot Safety
Bordeaux mixture is dangerous to humans, and in order to protect against its effects, safety precautions are observed when working. Before spraying, wear protective goggles, gloves, and a respirator that protects the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. After processing, all protective equipment is thoroughly washed in hot water and soap.
What errors occur during processing
People who use Bordeaux mixture for the first time often make the following mistakes:
- Do not use a spray bottle. When processing grapes, it is necessary to use sprayers that will help the solution penetrate into any part of the plants.
- Do not meet deadlines. If you do not process the plant in time, you can harm it.
Analogs of the remedy
People who are familiar with all the features of the Bordeaux solution often do not want to use it and are looking for analogues. There are several drugs that have similar properties for protecting vines. Common remedies include Kuproksat and Hom. They are distinguished by their affordable price and effective therapeutic effect. Many growers use them to treat diseases and prevent their occurrence.
When growing grapes, many are faced with dangerous pathologies that can harm it. Bordeaux liquid and similar fungicides are used to cure the plant and prevent further development of the disease.