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Description of plum variety Manchurian beauty, pollinator varieties and cultivation

Description of plum variety Manchurian beauty, pollinator varieties and cultivation


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If you choose a fruit crop for regions with harsh winters, then the Manchurian beauty plum will be one of the best options. This compact plant does not impose special requirements on growing conditions, is distinguished by an increased degree of frost resistance and the ability to give stable, albeit moderate, yields. To grow a Manchurian beauty plum, it is enough to adhere to the correct agricultural technology and choose only high-quality planting material.

The history of the selection of the Manchurian beauty

The selection of seedlings of the Manchurian plum was carried out by M.F. Ivanov, who lived in Manchuria (XX century). Young plants came to the Far East in the late 1920s, they were sent by A.A. Taratukhin. And already the distributor of the promising Manchurian plum was the breeder N.N. Tikhonov. The variety was obtained by crossing three varieties of plums: Chinese, Ussuri and Simona.

Distinctive features and description of the variety

The Manchurian plum is a fast-growing tree, since the central conductor in it is weakly expressed, it is often considered a large shrub. The plant reaches a height of only 1.6-1.8 meters. A dense, rounded crown is formed by brown-gray branches and curved brown shoots. The bark has a flaky texture, due to the active awakening of the kidneys, increased branching is observed.

Small-sized flowers are on bouquet branches. One bud contains up to three white flowers, which open earlier than the leaves.

The leaf apparatus is distinguished by a dark green color and a glossy surface. In length, leaf plates grow up to 10 centimeters, and their width is 4 centimeters. The shape is in the form of an ellipse, the upper part is pointed, and the plate itself is slightly concave.

The shape of the plum fruit Manchurian beauty is predominantly round, pressed down at the base, there is a narrow deep funnel and a clearly visible abdominal suture. The average weight is 15-20 grams, but there are large specimens - up to 30 grams. The peduncle is short and thick.

The skin is not very dense, it is thin and colored in a maroon color with a bluish tinge. The stone is oblong, small, difficult to separate. The taste of plums of the Manchurian beauty is sweet and sour, the aroma is mild.

Indicators of sugar content of the Manchurian beauty plum are 15%, dry matter 24%, titrated acids - 1.7%. There are almost 9 milligrams of ascorbic acid per 100 grams of products.

Characteristics

Plum Chuiskaya beauty, as the variety is also called, has won the recognition of gardening enthusiasts for its resistance to adverse environmental factors. For its successful cultivation, it is necessary to consider in more detail all the strengths and weaknesses.

Varietal resistance to subzero temperatures and drought

Plum Manchurian beauty from Ussuriyskaya - a cold-resistant variety, took a high degree of frost resistance. The plant painlessly tolerates low temperatures down to -40 degrees. Drought resistance is good, but in the heat it is recommended to water the plums abundantly, the frequency of irrigation is 1 time in 10-12 days.

The lack of moisture, as well as its excess, is not reflected in the best way in the future harvest.

In addition, you should not allow stagnation of moisture in the soil, otherwise there is a high probability of the development of putrefactive processes on the root system of the tree.

Susceptibility to disease and parasites

At the Manchurian beauty plum, experienced gardeners note an increased immunity to major ailments and harmful insects. So, when growing it in the Far East, there is no danger of rubella infection. The plant has a sufficient level of resistance to clasterosporium disease, as well as fungal infections that provoke the appearance of coccomycosis. Only against moniliosis, the Manchurian plum has no immunity.

In order to prevent the development of diseases and the invasion of harmful insects, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures both in autumn and spring.

Pollinator varieties

Since the Manchurian beauty plum is not a self-fertile plant, it needs additional pollinator varieties for effective fruiting. It is best to use for these purposes the Ural golden, Ussuri, Ural red or Manchurian prunes. The productivity indicators of the Manchurian plum increase significantly if 2-3 varieties are planted nearby with the same flowering periods as it.

Productivity and fruiting

Plum Manchurian beauty is a fast-growing plant. The first crop can already be obtained in the third year after planting in a permanent place. Fruiting is stable. A young plant gives 8-10 kilograms of delicious plums, and an adult one - up to 24 kilograms.

In order to prevent shattering of the crop, the harvest must be carried out 3-4 days before consumer maturity.

Where is the fruit of the tree used?

Manchurian beauty plums are distinguished by a whole range of useful components, dessert taste and slight sourness. They can be used for making homemade preparations, compotes and preserves, and they are also very tasty when eaten fresh.

The main pros and cons of culture

Plum Manchurian beauty has a whole list of positive characteristics, including:

  • early maturity;
  • universal purpose of fruits;
  • high consumer and commercial qualities;
  • unpretentious care;
  • frost resistance;
  • drought resistance;
  • increased immunity to diseases and parasitic individuals;
  • stable yield.

Of the disadvantages of the Manchurian plum, it can be noted:

  • the need for regular crown molding due to the intensive growth rate of the tree;
  • dependence of the productivity of the variety on other pollinators.

Plum planting on the site

To achieve high results, it is recommended to adhere to the timing and technology of planting the Manchurian plum.

The best timing for planting work

When grown in the northern regions, it is necessary to determine the Manchurian beauty plum for a permanent place in the garden in the spring. If the work is done in the fall, then there is a high probability of frost damage to the seedling.

Optimal drop-off location

The most productive culture manifests itself in a well-lit area protected from through winds. The depth of groundwater at the landing site should not be less than 1.5 meters. It is worth preparing a hole on a hill; planting in a lowland is fraught with the detrimental effect of stagnant cold air on a young plant.

Favorable and unwanted neighbors

It is recommended to place the Manchurian plum from the apple tree and garden shrubs at a distance of 3-4 meters. The neighborhood with a tall pear does not have the best effect on the Chuya beauty, the plant does not receive enough sunlight. Given the short stature of the fruit crop, it is not worth identifying it close to decorative deciduous and coniferous plantations.

Selection and preparation of a seedling

It is more expedient to purchase one-year or two-year seedlings with a well-developed root system. Their branches should be elastic, without signs of disease, traces of rot and various kinds of damage. The roots must not be dry. Before planting, they are kept in a clay mash for several hours.

Planting technological process

In order to avoid stagnation of moisture in the future, a drainage layer 10 centimeters thick should be laid in the pit. For the Manchurian plum, loamy, sod-podzolic soil with moderate acidity is preferable. To fertilize the soil, compost (30 kilograms), azofoska (800 grams), carbamide (200 grams) and potassium chloride (200 grams) are applied per square meter. The nutrient composition is added for digging.

Step-by-step disembarkation process:

  1. A soil mixture is poured into a prepared hole with a depth and diameter of 60 centimeters in the form of a mound.
  2. Place a seedling in the center and spread its roots. It is not worth deepening the root collar, it should be 3-4 centimeters higher from the ground level.
  3. Roots are sprinkled, and the soil is carefully tamped to exclude voids.
  4. A groove is formed around the seedling and 1-1.5 buckets of water are introduced.
  5. The soil is mulched with peat or humus.

Proper plant care

Plum Manchurian beauty does not require a special approach in terms of care. It is enough to moisten the soil in a timely manner, remove weeds, apply top dressing and perform standard pruning.

Irrigation and top dressing

Irrigation activities are performed once a month. The soil should be moistened by 40 centimeters. Fertilizer is applied after 2-3 years, using a composition of mullein (2 kilograms), urea (25 grams) and ammonium nitrate (25 grams). In the summer, ash is used at the rate of 200 grams per 1 square meter.

Crown formation

Pruning should be done either in the spring or in the fall before the onset of cold weather. Plum molding is performed from the second year and continues up to 4 years. In the future, incapacitated branches, damaged shoots are removed. The wound surface is treated with garden varnish.

Preventive treatments

In order to prevent the development of diseases, it is necessary to periodically thin out the crown of the plum. In the near-stem circle, it is worth removing fallen leaves and fruits. It is effective to treat plants with Bordeaux liquid against pathogenic microorganisms (3 times per season).

Loosening and care of the trunk circle

After each irrigation, the soil must be loosened to avoid oxygen starvation of the roots. It is recommended to mulch the soil with humus, peat, and freshly cut grass.

Preparing for winter

Young plantings are protected with non-woven fabric or burlap. In adult trees, the trunk is whitewashed, and the near-trunk circle is mulched with sawdust, needles, straw.

Reviews of experienced gardeners about the variety

Plum Manchurian beauty has mostly positive reviews. They appreciate it for its endurance, frost resistance, high immunity. Even novice gardeners can grow a culture.


Watch the video: How to Grow Plum Trees (February 2023).