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Pollination of plants is a breeding stage, which consists in the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a pestle or ovule. In this case, the stamens act as male organs, and the female organs are represented by the pestle ovary.
Pollination rules and features
There are two main types of pollination that include self-pollination or cross-pollination. The process of cross-pollination implies the presence of a factor, depending on the type of which several types of pollination are distinguished. In modern practical gardening, self-fertile and self-infertile varieties are distinguished. In the first case, the ovaries are formed as a result of pollination with their own pollen. The implementation of the second option consists in pollination with pollen from a plant of another variety.
A significant number of varieties of fruit plants can be attributed to the category of self-infertile and it is easy to understand whether a pollinator is needed. Such garden plantings may not bear fruit at all or form a minimum yield. Apricot varieties are mainly classified as self-fertile plants that are pollinated independently. But there are also self-fertile hybrid forms and varieties.
Natural and artificial pollination
Most common natural pollination through insect pollinators and other natural factors. Artificial pollination consists in transferring pollen from the anthers of one plant to the stigma of a pistil of other flowers in order to increase yield indicators or, if necessary, develop new, most promising varieties.
Apricot trees in most cases belong to self-pollinating fruit plants. However, a too early flowering period implies the absence of pollinating insects, therefore, manual pollination is used to obtain a high yield. The highest percentage of varieties of self-made apricot is found in the category of European groups. It is customary to classify varieties from the category of Central Asian and East Asian group of apricots as self-infertile varieties to be pollinated.
In order to maximize the successful pollination process at the stage of active flowering, the presence of bees is necessary. Nevertheless, apricots are good honey plants and form a significant amount of bee bread, which makes fruit stands very attractive for pollinating insects even in cloudy weather. A good result is obtained by placing about five to six bee colonies per hectare of apricot plantings.
Apricots in central Russia
Manual or "mechanical pollination" is a special technique used in cases where natural or open pollination is not sufficient or is undesirable for some reason. Apricot and peach trees, as well as nectarines, need to use manual pollination procedures.
The need for manual pollination of apricots can be caused by adverse weather conditions during the flowering period of the fruit crop, insufficient or complete absence of pollinating insects. For maximum efficiency, manual pollination is carried out at the beginning and middle of flowering, as well as almost at the end of this natural process. Pollination is carried out with a brush or toothbrush with soft bristles, with which pollen is transferred from flower to flower.
The best self-made varieties
Apricot autonomy is a very useful property of a fruit crop and can reduce labor costs for growing. Currently, domestic and foreign breeders have bred a significant number of self-fertile promising varieties that combine high yield, excellent taste and marketability, as well as unpretentiousness.
|Grade name||Botanical Description||Fruit characterization||Varietal Features|
|"Dessert"||Trees grow up to five meters and have high winter hardiness.||Large in size, weighing up to 55–65 g, with a thin yellow skin and delicate sour-sweet pulp||Average ripening period|
|"Success"||Medium height, with a fairly strong crown||Rounded, medium in size, weighing up to 23−25 g, beige-orange in color, with a sweet, very tasty flesh||It has excellent winter hardiness.|
|"Reliable"||With a relatively rare crown, a winter-hardy plant, with frost-resistant flowering buds||Large, weighing up to 45−55 g, elongated, oval, dark red in color, with sweet flesh||Ripening period mid-early|
|"Present"||Medium-sized plant with high winter hardiness||Small in size, weighing up to 18−20 g, yellow, with tasty flesh and free bone||High frost resistance of flower buds|
|"Joy"||Restrained growth power of tree and crown||Large, weighing up to 40−42 g, round, orange with a blush, with juicy pulp||Promising and early variety|
|"Rattle"||Medium-sized plant with sufficient winter hardiness||Very large, weighing up to 60−62 g, round-oval in shape, greenish-yellow in color without blush, with pubescence and delicious pulp||The best variety for dried fruit|
|"Stepnyak"||Tall and very powerful plant with a strong crown||Above average size, weighing more than 30−35 g, round-oval, orange-yellow, with a blush and high taste||High yield and decent winter hardiness|
In order to maximize the productivity indicators, when growing self-infertile varieties, pollinating varieties are planted on the site. It was noted that self-fertile varieties are able to show the best results as a result of pollination with pollen from plants of other varieties. In order to correctly choose a pollinator variety, the following recommendations should be followed:
- planted pollinators must necessarily correspond to the cultivated varieties in terms of flowering and fruiting;
- pollinating varieties should be classified as standard and promising varieties suitable for cultivation in specific soil and climatic conditions;
- apricot pollinator varieties should have good pollination rates with the help of the main varieties;
- it is advisable to take into account the taste indicators and commercial quality of fruits from varieties used for joint planting in the conditions of home gardening.
Pollination: how to attract bees
When selecting, it is best to use special lists developed by the research institute, with a list of the best and acceptable varieties of pollinators. For amateur gardening, it is advisable to use varieties characterized by high productivity, improved marketable qualities of the products and precocity. It is important to consider frost resistance and the risk of damage to the most common diseases or plant parasites.